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Treatment Name: C10403 Consolidation

C10403 Consolidation is a Chemotherapy Regimen for Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL)

What is C10403 consolidation chemotherapy?
C10403 is an aggressive and complex treatment regimen for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with ALL. The C10403 regimen is similar to treatment regimens given to pediatric patients (less than 18 y.o.) and is usually considered more aggressive than regimens given to adults (40 years or older).

The entire C10403 chemotherapy regimen consists of 5 different treatment courses: induction, consolidation (this page), interim maintenance, delayed intensification, and maintenance.

C10403 consolidation (Course II) typically begins within 7 days after completion of the induction phase, but may start later if the good white blood cell or platelet count is too low.

The consolidation phase of C10403 consists of the following five medications:

  • Vincristine (Oncovin®)
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan®)
  • Cytarabine (Ara-C)
  • Pegaspargase (Oncaspar®)
  • 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP)

Alternative name: 10403

How does C10403 consolidation (Course II) work?
Each of the medications in C10403 are designed to target and kill acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the blood, bone marrow, or wherever else they may happen to be.

Goals of C10403 consolidation (Course II) therapy:
C10403 consolidation is given after the induction treatment course to eliminate remaining leukemia cells and maintain remission from the leukemia. The consolidation phase may also allow for a deeper remission originally obtained by the first course of induction therapy.The C10403 protocol is commonly given with the goal of cure.

Schedule

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  • Cyclophosphamide intravenous (I.V.) infusion over 30 to 60 minutes on Days 1 and 29 (total of two doses total this course)
  • Cytarabine I.V. infusion over 1 to 3 hours or subcutaneous (SubQ) injection on Days 1, 2, 3, 4, then 8 , 9, 10, 11, then 29, 30, 31, 32, then 36, 37, 38, 39 (total of sixteen doses of cytarabine this course)
  • Vincristine I.V. push or I.V. infusion over 10 to 15 minutes on Days 15, 22, 43, and 50 (total of four doses total this course)
  • Pegaspargase I.V. infusion over 1 to 2 hours or intramuscular (I.M.) injection on Days 15 and 43
    • Pre-medications, including diphenhydramine (Benadryl®), hydrocortisone, and acetaminophen (Tylenol®) may help to reduxce the risk of significant hypersensitivity or allergic reaction from pegaspargase (Oncaspar®)
    • If anaphylaxis occurs from PEGaspargase, your doctor may switch you to another type of asparaginase known as Erwinia asparaginase
  • 6-Mercaptopurine oral tablets by mouth once daily (at least one hour after evening meal) on Days 1 through 14 and Days 29 through 42 (total of twenty-eight doses this course). Different amounts of tablets may need to be taken on certain days of the week. Double check the prescribed daily dose each day before taking mercaptopurine
  • Methotrexate intrathecal (I.T.) injection on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22 (total of four doses total this course)

Estimated total infusion time for this treatment:

  • Up to 5 hours for days when cyclophosphamide and cytarabine are both given
  • Up to 4 hours on days when just cytarabine is given
  • Up to 3 hours on days when vincristine is given with pegaspargase I.V infusion (up to 2 hours if pegaspargase given by I.M. injection)
  • Up to one hour for days when vincristine is given alone
  • Infusion times are based on clinical studies, but may vary depending on doctor preference or patient tolerability. Pre-medications and intravenous (I.V.) fluids, such as hydration, or a drug reaction may add more time
  • Intrathecal chemotherapy administration may also add 1 - 3 hours to the time spent in the clinic or hospital on the days that it is given

C10403 consolidation chemotherapy is usually given in an outpatient infusion center, allowing the person to go home after each planned treatment. On occasion, C10403 consolidation may be given in the hospital if close monitoring is needed.

NOTE: 6-Mercaptopurine is usually taken at home and must be filled at a retail pharmacy. Not all pharmacies carry this medicine so it is best to call ahead to ensure it is in stock before going there in person.

Click here for the common C10403 consolidation chemo starting doses.

Side Effects

In a multi-drug regimen, each medication has unique side effects. When these medicines are given together, drug-related side effects reported in clinical studies give the best estimate of what to expect. In clinical studies, the most commonly reported serious (grade 3 or 4) side effects of C10403 consolidation are shown here:

  • Neutropenic fever (44%)
  • Infection (26%)
  • Numbness or tingling in fingers or toes (15%)
  • Increased blood triglycerides (12%)
  • Fatigue (12%)
  • Increased blood sugar (11%)
  • Allergic reaction (11%)
  • Blood clot (9%)
  • Mouth sores (9%)
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (4%)

On average, 2% of patients discontinue treatment due to unacceptable side effects.

Side effect videos Side Effect Videos
Neutropenic FeverNeutropenic FeverFatigue Fatigue Blood ClotsBlood ClotsAnemiaAnemiaHair LossHair LossDiarrheaDiarrheaNausea and VomitingNausea and VomitingBleedingBleeding

Monitoring

How often is monitoring needed?
Labs (blood tests) may be checked before treatment and periodically during treatment until stable. Labs often include: Complete Blood Count (CBC), Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP), prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), fibrinogen, amylase, lipase, triglycerides, plus any others your doctor may order. Minimal residual disease, or MRD, uses your blood or bone marrow cells to see if any leukemia cells can still be detected in the body. MRD may be tested using either flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), or both.

How often is imaging needed?
Imaging may be checked before treatment and during treatment if there is a concern for infection or medication side effect. Imaging may include: X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computerized tomography (CT) scans.

How might blood test results/imaging affect treatment?
Depending upon the results, your doctor may advise to continue C10403 as planned, decrease doses of certain medications, or delay treatment until recovery.

Questions to Ask Your...

A better understanding of your treatments will allow you to ask more questions of your healthcare team. We then hope that with the answers, you will get better results and have greater satisfaction with your care. Because we know it's not always easy to know what questions to ask, we've tried to make it easy for you!

Choose any healthcare provider below to see common questions that you may want to ask of this person. Then, either print each list to bring to your clinic visits, or copy the questions and send them as a message to your healthcare team through your electronic medical record.

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Questions to ask your DoctorNursePharmacist

Is it possible to participate in a clinical trial even if I live far away? Clinical Trials
It is possible, but it will depend upon the clinical trial requirements and whether you are willing to travel periodically for monitoring. Some, but not all, clinical trials require daily laboratory work as part of the monitoring requirements. Usually monitoring is more frequent at the start of the trial and decreases as time goes on. Most clinical trials cover the cost of the experimental medication and some help to cover travel costs as well as scans when needed. If you cannot afford a standard treatment, a clinical trial may be a way to receive treatment while minimizing out-of-pocket costs.
What is a clinical trial and am I eligible to participate in one now? Clinical Trials
A clinical trial is a type of study in which people are assigned to groups that either receive a new treatment intervention or standard treatment. In clinical trials with patients with cancer, it is sometimes unethical to give no treatment or a placebo. The type of treatment received by the patient is determined by the study protocol. Ask your doctor if they have any clinical trials that are enrolling patients or know if any at treatment centers nearby. You may also visit the website clinicaltrials.gov to see what clinical trials might be available for all cancer types and where these clinical trial medications are being offered.
What are the best ways to minimize costs of treatment? Cost
One way to minimize costs associated with cancer treatment is to ask your doctor what types of tests they are ordering. If they are expensive, ask if they are covered by insurance before getting the test. If you are concerned about costs, you can also ask your doctor to only order tests that are absolutely necessary and to minimize the ones that are unlikely to change the plan. Some anti-cancer and supportive care medications are now available as generic formulations and preferred by insurance companies. If these medications are still expensive, ask your doctor to work with your pharmacist to find cheaper alternatives. Some drugs have co-pay cards or patient assistance programs that can help reduce the cost.
​If I don't fully understand what type of cancer I am dealing with, how do I learn more about it? Diagnosis
There are many reputable online resources to learn more about specific types of cancer, such as the American Cancer Society. Once a final diagnosis is made by your doctor, they can share this information with you and point you to other resources they know as well.
Will this treatment affect my ability to have children? Fertility
The answer to this question is highly variable and depends upon the treatment received. If there is a possibility that it may reduce the ability to have children (reproductive potential) in the future, ask your doctor how fertility may be preserved allowing you to then move forward with treatment. Depending upon the cancer type being treated, do not wait to ask this question as things may move rather quickly as there may be small window of time in which fertility preservation needs to happen.
​Will this treatment cause birth defects if I get pregnant while I am receiving treatment? Fertility
Many drugs used to treat cancer have not been tested in women who were pregnant. You and your doctor should discuss whether a baby might be at risk for birth defects if you get pregnant while receiving anti-cancer medications. Similarly, the risks to a baby fathered by men taking anti-cancer medications are largely unknown. If you are a man about to take take an anti-cancer medication, you should first discuss the potential risks with your doctor.
Will I need to change what I eat during cancer treatment? Healthy Diet
Ask your doctor if a dietician is available to speak with you. The dietician can thoroughly evaluate what you eat (your diet) and can work with your doctor to come up with specific recommendations based upon your diagnosis and treatment. In general, most experts recommend that you consume a diet that has enough protein to ensure you maintain your muscle mass. Some experts recommend plant-based protein whenever possible (Reference). A diet that contains whole grains, fiber, fruits, and vegetables is generally recommended, but some experts caution that uncooked fruits or vegetables during eaten during periods when your immune system is greatly suppressed could lead to infection. Because many treatments do not suppress your immune system, you may be able to continue your normal diet. Ask your doctor and dietician what is safe and good to eat and what is not. Visit Stanford Health Care's website on nutrition for recipes. Additional Reference found here.
Am I able to safely continue over-the-counter and herbal supplements while receiving this treatment? Home Medications
Some over-the-counter (or "O.T.C.") vitamins or medications and herbal supplements may increase the risk of side effects of therapy, or cause the treatment to not work as well. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist everything that you are taking, including prescription and non-prescription medications, as well as any eye drops, inhalers, topical medications such as creams or patches, implants or injections, which are sometimes forgotten but are all medications too!
How might I maintain a better sense of control? Mindset
Your doctor may have advice specific to your situation, and may recommend that you see a social worker who can listen to you and recommend specific resources, often at little to no cost! In the meantime, consider visiting our emotional wellness page to learn about our "Life H.A.C.Ks"
What if I'm worried that the treatment won't work? Mindset
Our mindsets describe for us what is right, what is possible, and what is natural. Changing our mindset often requires a combination of education and communication with others. In general, mindsets can be shaped by our education and experiences, people we trust, the media, social networks, culture, or religion. When it comes to treatment, it is okay to be uncertain. Your doctor wants to do what is right and will only offer treatment they think will help. Try to change your mindset by talking with your doctor. The belief that treatment will help you meet your goals is powerful and may actually lead to beneficial physiologic changes in your body.(Reference)
What do I need to know regarding my blood tests, which are sometimes referred to as "labs"? Monitoring
Unless you have access to them via your electronic chart, we recommend that you always ask for a copy of your labs. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of different blood tests available for your doctor to order. Some are common and some are not. Have your team explain to you what blood tests they have ordered and what the results mean when you do not understand. This way you will have a better understanding if the treatment is working or not. Plus, doctors may prescribe medications when your lab work is abnormal. When your lab work returns to normal you may be able to stop taking these medications, or reduce the dose.
How well does this treatment work for people with the same type of cancer? Prognosis
Clinical trials results (which can be found under references at the bottom of ChemoExperts.com treatment webpages) give doctors an idea of the response rate and what to expect when prescribing a specific cancer treatment. However, clinical trials enroll patients who are not always similar to the general population. It is sometimes harder to tolerate treatment when you have certain other conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or being overweight, among others. Because of this, the expected response rate to treatment is best answered by your doctor.
What is the stage of the cancer and will my treatment be based upon the stage? Prognosis
Some cancer types are assigned a "stage," which is used to define where in the body the cancer has been found on imaging scans such as a PET scan, CT scan, or MRI scan. Certain blood disorders, such as leukemias, are not assigned a stage because they travel throughout the body in the bloodstream.
How can I keep track of all of my doctor visits, lab appointments, scans, and medication refills? Schedule
Your doctor and nurse will give you a schedule of treatments, including dates and times. They may be subject to change based upon your condition, your schedule, and the clinic's availability. There are many ways to keep track of things, including writing them in a calendar, or using your smartphone. To get started, try using our ChemoExperts Treatment Tracker to input the date and time of your treatments and appointments into the calendar. Then using your smartphone, put in the code you have generated and sync all events to your smartphone's calendar so that you won't miss a single appointment!
What can I be doing to reduce the number of side effects I may get? Side Effects
If you have a good understanding of what side effects to expect you can begin to take measures to possibly prevent them. Watch our side effect videos to learn more. For side effects that we do not yet have videos for, ask your doctor for ideas on how best to prevent them or if they occur, manage them appropriately. Doing so may keep you out of the hospital or even save your life!
What is supportive care? Supportive Care
The term "supportive care" was developed to describe the management of side effects from cancer treatment, but has been expanded to include all symptom management for patients before, during, and after treatment. Supportive care requires good communication among patients and health care providers, as well as family and caregivers. In addition to improving your physical functioning, supportive care also considers social, spiritual, and psychological wellness when considering ways to improve your quality of life. In addition to your doctor, supportive care is best delivered through a multi-disciplinary team, which may include specialists from nursing, pharmacy, nutrition, pain management, social work, physical therapy, and others. Ask your doctor what you can do to ensure your needs are being met and that maintaining the highest quality of life possible remains a primary focus of care. (Olver I, et al. Support Care Cancer. 2020)
​How many treatment options are there to treat this cancer, and why did you choose the one you did over the others? Treatment
Please list all alternative treatment options here:

1) ___________________________________________________________

2) ___________________________________________________________

3) ___________________________________________________________

4) ___________________________________________________________

5) ___________________________________________________________
Will I need radiation in addition to medications? Treatment
Some cancers respond particularly well to radiation and some do not. Your doctor will know whether radiation is likely to work or not and will refer you to a doctor who specializes in radiation treatment if indicated.
How do I keep good records of my treatment history and what documents should I ask for? Treatment
We think the best way to keep track of things is to come prepared for clinic visits with pre-prepared questions, like this one! Then take good notes throughout each and every visit. At the end of each visit, ask your doctor for copies of your labs, scan results, pathology reports, and any other test results they might have.
What is a consent form and do I need to sign it before treatment? Treatment
A consent form contains information about your treatment, including possible risks and expected benefits. Signing the consent means that you understand and agree that the possible benefits outweigh risks and that you are willing to move forward with treatment. Not all treatments require a consent form. Your doctor will tell you if a consent is needed.
If I am working, are there effective treatment options that also minimize interruptions to my work schedule? Work
If you work full-time, treatments consisting of all oral therapies (pills) may cause the least disruption to your work schedule. However, pills often require that you take them continuously as long as they continue to work and are not causing harsh side effects. Sometimes intravenous (I.V.) medications are given over a pre-specified period of time, depending upon the medication and cancer type. Tell your doctor what your work schedule looks like and the type of work you do so that you can decide together on a treatment that makes the most sense for you. On occasion, other therapies do not exist, but thankfully cancer researchers are working on developing new treatments every year.
If possible, should I change how I do my job in order to balance treatment-related side effects? Work
While not always possible, some people are able to change what they do at their jobs to reduce some of the stress or physical demands on their body while undergoing treatment for cancer. Many people do not want to stop working and this might be one way to keep working until you are feeling back to your normal self. 
Should I take time off of work to receive this treatment? Work
Many anti-cancer medications can be taken at home thus allowing one to continue to work full-time. That said, side effects of pills can be as severe as some intravenous therapies and may prevent you from working until they are under control. If you need to receive intravenous infusions, check our schedule section to see how long the infusion might take and decide whether it would be good to take that day off or adjust your work hours when possible. Based upon your specific treatment, your doctor will help you decide what to do and when appropriate, may write a letter for you to take time off of work.
What if my job as a caregiver is getting harder? Caregivers
Caregivers can be partners, children, parents, siblings, friends, or colleagues. Importantly, the needs of the person receiving treatment may first grow and not decrease until that person feels better. As a result, the primary caregiver may take on more tasks, such as cooking, laundry, house cleaning, or child care. Although being a caregiver can be both rewarding through improved self-worth, and relationship enhancement, it can become overwhelming at times too (Reference). Tell your doctor what has become most difficult for you to manage. And remember, it's okay to ask other potential caregivers for help with tasks to make your job as a primary caregiver a little easier.
What should I do if I receive a bill for something that I thought would be covered by insurance? Cost
On occasion, items may be submitted and denied by insurance for a variety of reasons. Sometimes the medication or procedure is not covered, but sometimes claims are submitted with too little information to be approved by insurance or sometimes claims are submitted with the wrong information (example: miscoded). A denial letter from the insurance company, when issued, usually helps to explain the situation. If you receive an unexpected bill, ask your doctor if there is a financial counselor or someone you can speak with to help you.
How do the results of my genetic tests affect the treatment I received? Genetics
Doctors now have the ability to send cancer cells for genetic testing. The tests look for abnormal segments of DNA that give clues to what treatments might work and which treatments might not be worth trying. The reason is that previous studies have shown them to be ineffective when certain genetic mutations are present. Your doctor can tell you if a genetic test is worthwhile, or if already sent, what the results are and how they affect treatment choice.
What foods should I eat during treatment? Healthy Diet
Ask if a dietician is available to speak with you. In general, most experts recommend that you consume a diet that has enough protein to ensure you maintain your muscle mass. Some experts recommend plant-based protein whenever possible. If you have had antibiotics recently, dairy products may be more difficult to digest and cause abdominal pain. It may take time to re-populate the good bacteria in your gut once antibiotics are stopped. Some experts also do not recommend probiotics and would advise you talk with your doctor and pharmacist before taking a probiotic supplement while receiving cancer treatment. In general, it is best to avoid highly processed foods, and those that have a lot of sugar. Ask your doctor or clinical pharmacist if raw fruits and vegetables are safe to eat with your treatment as these are often the best source of necessary vitamins and nutrients your body needs to stay healthy.
What if I do not feel like eating during treatment or if foods taste different to me now due to treatment? Healthy Diet
Some treatments are well-known to change the way foods taste. Some experts recommend avoiding your favorite food if it tastes different during treatment so that when you are finished with treatment, you will still enjoy eating it. In addition, if food makes you nauseated, try to avoid foods that produce a lot of aroma, or leave them uncovered so that they do not produce overwhelming smells when you take the lid off. If you are unintentionally losing weight, ask your doctor if you can meet with a dietician who can recommend specific foods that will help prevent further weight loss.
​What foods should I avoid while receiving treatment? Healthy Diet
Be sure to check with your doctor and pharmacist about foods that may interact with your treatment because certain medications may be affected. For example, grapefruit and grapefruit juice commonly interacts with certain anti-cancer pills.
What if my other doctors prescribe medications while I am receiving treatment from you? Home Medications
Before you start taking medications, it is usually a good idea to tell your hematologist or oncologist about newly prescribed medications from other physicians, physician assistants, or nurse practitioners to avoid any dangerous drug-drug interactions. If they do not know the answer, they will refer you to a pharmacist.
​If I am having a hard time coping with the diagnosis, treatment, and all of the disruptions they have caused in my life, are there support groups available? Mindset
Support groups available online or in-person and may be offered by your treatment center. Ask your doctor which ones they recommend.
​What if I am concerned about my sexual health? Who can I talk to? Mindset
Intimacy is an important part of many people's lives. Cancer and its treatment (surgery or medications) may cause anxiety, fear, a depressed mood, nausea, or fatigue, all which can lead to decreased sexual desire, decreased function and lower level of intimacy. It is a common problem and is probably underreported. Although it may be a bit uncomfortable to talk about at first, your doctor will understand. Certain medications may help improve your sexual health. Additionally, ask your doctor about the availability of counselors or other specialists that can speak with you and your partner. These specialists may have you fill out a brief questionnaire that will help them help you! Reference
Do you recommend I make any lifestyle changes now, or is it best to wait until after treatment? Mindset
Now might be the time to start thinking about lifestyle changes. Are you avoiding things that make you unhealthy and doing things that build you up? Treatment will likely work better if you are in better physical condition! If you are feeling fatigued from treatment, watch our video on fatigue for some ideas on regaining energy.
If I need to reduce the dose(s) of my treatment, will it affect how well it works? Prognosis
Certain anti-cancer medications can be reduced without affecting the overall chances of getting rid of the cancer. Your doctor or clinical pharmacist may be able to answer this question for you based upon the specific cancer and treatment. Sometimes dose reductions are made due to side effects. Other times dose reductions are made due to kidney, or liver problems when these organs are involved in breaking down the medication. In these instances, it is expected that the anti-cancer medication will achieve the same level in the body as it would in someone with normal kidney or liver function. Likewise, without changing their effectiveness, anti-cancer medications may require a dose reduction if they interact with another medication you are taking to treat another illness.
Is there anything that can be done if I am overwhelmed by the number of appointments for doctor visits, scans, and blood tests? Schedule
Ask your doctor if certain labs can wait to be drawn at the same time as others, or drawn a little early to avoid unnecessary trips. Or, ask if there are alternative medications that you might be able to take that do not require as many visits required for monitoring. Importantly, some tests should not be delayed or drawn early because they may affect your doctor's ability to make a decision that is important to your overall health.
When do you consider stem cell or bone marrow transplantation? Stem Cell Transplant
Depending upon your age and the type of cancer, some patients are candidates after finishing their first treatment regimen, while others might wait until a relapse is detected and receive a different treatment before a stem cell transplant is offered. All types of stem cell transplants (allogeneic, autologous) have the potential for both short- and long-term side effects afterwards, thus the decision to pursue a transplant is not a simple one and requires consultation with a doctor who specializes in stem cell transplantation to ensure that the benefits likely outweigh the risks.
What can I be doing to take care of myself while receiving treatment? Supportive Care
It is important for a patient to be able to activate and support self-management, as well as engage in an exercise program that is safe and tailored to their abilities. Self-management refers to tasks related to the management of the disease or treatment, working with new emotions, and the possibility of changing roles in relationships in order to continue to live well with the condition (Chan RJ et al. Support Care Cancer. 2020). The delivery of information, such as that which is found on ChemoExperts.com, can help patients gain the knowledge necessary to begin to self-manage side effects such as fatigue, pain, diarrhea, constipation, and more. Certain side effects require immediate attention by your health care provider and it is important that you know what these are and when to seek immediate medical attention. In order to effectively take care of yourself, set goals with your doctor and formulate actionable plans that enable you to work through problems when you can, but also seek help in a timely manner when you need it. Ask questions when you do not understrand something. As clinicians ourselves, we see too many patients remain silent during their clinic visits. Now is your time to speak up!
What can I be doing to increase the chances of this treatment working? Treatment
Your doctor may recommend dietary changes, increased physical activity, or simply staying on schedule with all prescribed treatments. Tell your doctor if you are missing doses of medications and the reasons why. They are here to help you, not judge you, and would rather know so that they can give you the ideas or resources you need to be successful.
How long has this treatment been used to treat people? Treatment
The longer a particular treatment has been in use the higher likelihood that your doctor will have real-world experience with it and be able to tell you what the road ahead might look like. However, for the older regimens still in use, the clinical trials that led to their use did not typically report detailed information on side effects like newer therapies do now. Thus, by reading the references (found at the bottom of every ChemoExperts.com regimen page) for cancer treatments, your doctor will still have a good idea of what to expect for medications they are prescribing for the first time.
Is anyone in my family at risk of inheriting this cancer? Genetics
Certain types of cancers carry a risk of being passed down to children. Most cancers however, either arise from unknown causes or develop from risk factors such as being overweight, having certain types of infections, or being exposed to environmental toxins such as chemicals, smoke, or excessive sun exposure. Some cancers are related to your age. Your doctor will know whether this cancer may have been due to the genes you inherited and whether it is worthwhile for your family members to get tested.
What does the term "relapse" mean and how might it affect me? Prognosis
A relapse refers to the cancer going away and coming back within a certain timeframe. Generally speaking, if it comes back within a year or two, your doctor will likely discuss a second line therapy that you have not received before. If it comes back many years after the first treatment, your doctor may discuss repeating the original treatment since it was effective the first time.
Now that I have finished treatment, am I in remission? And if so, what is the risk of the cancer coming back? Treatment
For curable cancers, remission is usually the goal. This means there are no signs or symptoms of cancer. Patients in remission are followed closely for any signs of cancer returning. If the cancer returns, there are usually additional options for treatment. Depending upon the type, and stage of cancer, the goal may or may not be to induce a remission. For incurable cancers, the goal may be to make you feel better and live longer.
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Questions to ask your NurseDoctorPharmacist

What can my caregiver expect to experience emotionally? Caregivers
Being a caregiver can hold a lot of meaning and personal satisfaction, but it is important to be aware that caregivers experience emotional pain, sadness, and frustration as well. They may experience caregiver fatigue and, if so, might look for a local or online support group to assist with navigating the ups and downs. Ask you nurse if there are specific things that they think might help your caregiver as well.
What tasks might be required of my caregiver? Caregivers
If you are not feeling well, your caregiver may need to be available to drive you to and from your clinic appointments, lab draws, and infusion visits. If the treatment you are receiving increases the risk of serious side effects, you may need to have someone available around-the-clock in case you need urgent help or deciding if you need transportation to the ER. At some or all stages of your treatment, you may need a caregiver in home 24 hours a day to help you with eating and bathing until your are feeling better. Caregivers often play an important role in helping you keep track of your scheduled medications throughout treatment. Ask your nurse what other ways your caregiver may be able to help.
Are there any programs that I can use to help minimize the cost of my treatment? Cost
If your cancer treatment is going to be costly, there may be financial or patient assistance programs available to you to help lessen out-of-pocket costs. Ask your nurse if any of these are available and if someone such as a financial counselor can help you. You may qualify for financial or patient assistance programs, or supplemental insurance. If you do not know your pharmacist, your nurse may be able to connect you with one that may help reduce the cost of medications.
What resources can I use to help learn more about my diagnosis? Diagnosis
There are many online resources that are free to use to help you learn more about specific types of cancer. One reputable source is the American Cancer Society. Other good resources include Medline Plus and cancer.gov
If I have to spend a long time at the infusion center, should I bring food with me? Healthy Diet
Some cancer treatments take several hours to complete causing you to spend a significant part of your day in the infusion center. In some cases, you may be at the infusion center when it is time to eat. Ask your nurse if food is typically provided to patients in the infusions center and if not, what the policy is for patients who want to bring food with them. A tablet or computer, or a good book often helps the time go by faster as well.
What resources can I use to help me make better choices regarding my diet as I begin cancer treatment? Healthy Diet
Many oncology clinics have a dietician available to help you make positive changes in your diet. If one is not available, your nurse may be able to give you appropriate resources to help you make safe and positive dietary changes.
Will I need to start any new medications? Home Medications
There may be several medications that need to be started for anti-cancer therapy. Some of these medications may help you to avoid possible side effects from treatment and are therefore extremely important. Ask your nurse about the new therapies you are starting and why you need to take them. Knowing what they are, how they work, how often they need to be taken, and the dosages will help keep you safe.
What should I do if I'm not a person who likes to ask for help? Mindset
Your nurse wants to make your life easier, but won't be able to unless you tell him or her what you are struggling with. Know that most health care professionals genuinely want to help you and the questions you ask now will save both you and them time by preventing problems down the road. If you can change your mindset and begin asking for assistance early, it will help them and it will help you. Problems may be able to be prevented and everyone wins!
Is it important to keep good records of my laboratory results? Monitoring
It is always a good idea to keep good records during your treatment course. Your nurse can help you get the records that you need.
Do I have to come to the clinic for labs or can I get them done at a facility closer to home? Monitoring
Some labs may need to be done at the clinic since not all laboratories have the ability to do them, but some routine labs could be done at a laboratory closer to home to save you a trip to clinic if it is a long drive. If you are interested in getting labs done closer to home, ask your nurse if this would be possible.
Which lab values are most important for me to keep track of? Monitoring
This depends upon your specific treatment, but in general, you should understand the normal ranges for your white blood cells, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine (kidney function), and liver function tests (bilirubin, AST, ALT, Alkaline phosphatase). Your nurse may be able to help you understand what happens if your lab results are not within the normal ranges for these specific tests.
If I am to be hospitalized for treatment, when should I arrive? Schedule
Hospitals can be busy places, with dozens of patients coming and going each and every day. The nurses may have to coordinate the time you come in for treatment around the time at which a hospital room becomes available. Make sure you speak with your nurse prior to coming to the hospital so you that know a room will be ready for you when you arrive.
What can I be doing to reduce the number of side effects I get from cancer treatment? Side Effects
If you have a good understanding of what side effects to expect, you can begin to take measures to prevent them. Watch our side effect videos to learn more. For side effects that we do not yet have videos for, ask your nurse for ideas on how best to prevent them or if they occur, manage them appropriately. Doing so may keep you out of the hospital or even save your life!
What side effects might require a trip to the emergency department? Side Effects
Some side effects can be life-threatening and need to be treated right away! Ask your nurse what side effects can be life threatening and if they occur, need to be treated at the nearest or emergency department (ED) or the emergency room (ER) designated by your health care team.
If I experience an infusion-related reaction to my treatment, how will it be managed? Side Effects
Infusion reactions can be common with certain treatments and can be managed in different ways. If a reaction occurs, nurses will first stop the treatment, then call your doctor for instruction on how to proceed. Ask your nurse to give you information on how an infusion reaction would be managed if it occurs.
What is a stem cell transplant? Stem Cell Transplant
A stem cell transplant is the infusion of stem cells collected from yourself, a related donor, or an unrelated donor. These stem cells restore white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets after your own stem cells have been destroyed by high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation. Your nurse may be able to further explain the process if a stem cell transplant is needed.
If I need a stem cell transplant, what are the closest facilities that perform stem cell transplants? Stem Cell Transplant
Stem cell transplantation is a very specialized treatment that only certain centers are able to perform. It is possible that there may not be a center in your hometown that performs stem cell transplants. If you are told that you need a stem cell transplant, be sure to ask your nurse what facilities you could possibly go to in order to receive this treatment.
Will a stem cell transplant ever be an option for me? Stem Cell Transplant
Your doctor will be able to answer this question taking into consideration your cancer type, age, overall health, and in certain cases, stem cell donor availability. Some cancers do not benefit from stem cell transplantation, while others may be cured by the procedure. Your nurse may be able to help explain the transplant process and what level of monitoring is required afterwards.
If I have an issue after normal clinic hours, what phone number do I call? Supportive Care
Serious issues can arise anytime of the day or in the middle of the night. Ask your nurse what on-call phone number you need to speak to a doctor or other healthcare professional after hours.
What can I do to support my caregiver? Caregivers
Encourage your caregiver to schedule rest and relaxation, have other friends or family members take "shifts" being the caregiver, allow friends or loved ones to cook meals, or find local or online support groups when time permits. It is important your caregiver continue to engage in activities that bring them joy, even though they may feel guilty stepping away from their role. Remind them they can't take care of you unless they take care of themselves first! Your nurse may have more specific ideas for you as well.
What if my caregiver is not available? Caregivers
It is important to have a designated back-up during the times your primary caregiver is unavailable or to have a plan in place for the times that they are not around. If you know you will have difficulty making it to certain appointments, ask your nurse if they might be able to reschedule for a time or day that works for you. If you need transportation to a health-related appointment, your social worker may be able to assist, but will need plenty of time to make arrangements for you. In the case of an emergency, never hesitate to call 911.
What should I look for to know if my caregiver is experiencing caregiver fatigue? Caregivers
If your caregiver begins appearing irritable, withdrawn, depressed, stressed, etc. they may be experiencing burnout. Changes in their sleep pattern and/or eating habits may also be a sign. Your nurse may know of other signs to look out for as well.
How can I ensure I am getting adequate nutrition when I have no appetite during cancer treatment? Healthy Diet
When food becomes unappealing, focus on protein shakes, smoothies, electrolyte replenishing drinks, and broth. Ask your nurse to connect you with a dietician to help you with making food choices that agree with you. When all else fails, eat what you can! Most experts agree that a small snack that sounds delicious and stays down is better than nothing at all.
What can I eat when I have mouth sores or mucositis? Healthy Diet
If appropriate, your nurse may be able to provide a recipe for a salt and soda mouth rinse that can help with the healing process when you have mouth sores or mucositis. Focus on eating bland, soft foods that do not take a lot of effort to chew. Consider avoid acidic substances such as citrus or tomatoes until the mouth sores have gone away. If you are losing weight and pain is preventing you from eating, you may want to ask your nurse about possibly medicating with pain pills before meals.
What should I eat if I am experiencing diarrhea during cancer treatment? Healthy Diet
In some cases, diarrhea can be caused by an infection. Be sure to speak to your nurse and care team before attempting to manage diarrhea at home. You should then consider trying the B.R.A.T. diet (banana, rice, applesauce, toast, oatmeal, or crackers) or bland foods. If you like dairy products, know that they may cause cramping in some people during treatment. If your stomach is bothering you, and you are having diarrhea, eat dairy in small amounts until you know you can tolerate a full serving.
What do I do if I want to take natural or dietary supplements with anti-cancer treatment? Home Medications
Natural or dietary supplements are often unregulated and unproven. They may reduce the effectiveness of certain types of anticancer therapies or chemotherapy, or add additional side effects that you may not be aware of. Because of these things, herbal and dietary supplements are often not advised to be taken during treatment. That said, some supplements may be beneficial and even recommended. Importantly, your medical team can give you specific instructions on what to do if you are interested in these types of therapies. Do not start these therapies without speaking to your medical team first. If you would like to learn more about certain dietary and herbal supplements so you can ask more detailed questions of your doctor, visit this website sponsored by Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and scroll to the bottom to type in the supplement you are interested in knowing more about.
Who do I contact if I need a refill on my medications? Home Medications
To make sure that you don't experience any delays in treatment, make sure you ask your nurse who you should contact and how you should contact them when you need medication refills. Also be sure that they have your preferred pharmacy on file so they can send your prescription to the correct pharmacy.
If I am admitted to the hospital, do I need to bring my home medications with me? Home Medications
It is always helpful to bring your medications so that your healthcare team can see exactly what you are taking and determine if you need any refills before you go home. Importantly, most if not all, medications will be supplied by the hospital. However, some medications such as oral anti-cancer medication or chemotherapy pills may not be routinely stocked and may not be readily available to the hospital's pharmacy. If this is the case, and your doctor wants you to continue to take your oral anti-cancer medication, you may ask the hospital if their policy permits you to use your own medication so that you do not miss doses. If you do bring your medications, and they allow you to use your own supply, it is important to know that hospital staff often require that they oversee the administration of these medicines so that they know exactly what you are taking in order to keep you safe. If they do hold onto your medications, make sure you ask for your them back before you leave since it is common for people to forget. Your nurse may be able to help answer more specific questions about medications brought into the hospital.
If I am having mental health issues during treatment, what resources are available? Mindset
There are many resources that can help people deal with their diagnosis and treatment. Know that you don't have to face mental health issues alone. Talk to your nurse about what services are available at your treatment center to help with anxiety or depression, and ask what other mental health services are available in your area.
Can I come in a day or two early to have labs drawn to decrease the amount of time I wait to receive treatment? Monitoring
In some instances, labs have to be drawn on certain days. In other instances, labs can be drawn a day or two before treatment. If interested, ask your nurse if you need to have labs drawn on the day of treatment or if you can get them done earlier to lessen the time you spend waiting at the infusion center.
Who can help me stay active when I am feeling weak? Physical Activity
In order to maintain activity in a safe manner, ask your nurse to put you in contact with a physical therapist. They can assess your strength level and give you individualized exercises to maintain and build muscle safely. An example is to get up every hour during the day for a short walk in the house to maintain endurance. It might not be easy, but try to stick with it because it may greatly benefit you in the long run.
Where can I buy a wig if I need one? Side Effects
Ask your nurse to recommend that best place to obtain a wig. Then ask if they can give you a prescription for a "cranial prosthesis"  so that the wig may be billed under your medical insurance to reduce the amount that you need to pay out of pocket.
How can I prevent nausea or make it go away if I get it? Side Effects
There are many anti-nausea medications available. Of the ones you have been given, ask your nurse or pharmacist for guidance which to take and when. If you are having difficulty eating, anti-nausea medications taken 30 to 60 minutes before a meal can sometimes help. Eating soda crackers every couple of hours may help to absorb some of the acid in your stomach. Your nurse may recommend ginger ale, ginger chews, peppermints, or bland foods when you are feeling nauseated. Ensure you are maintaining proper hydration since being dehydrated can make nausea worse. Lastly, remember anti-nausea medications may have side effects too! Ondansetron (Zofran), the most commonly taken anti-nausea medication causes constipation in many people and may require the addition of a stool softener or laxative.
What side effects should I contact the clinic about if they happen? Side Effects
Ask your nurse which side effects should prompt a phone call and which side effects can be managed on your own. While certain side effects can wait until normal clinic hours to be reported to the clinic staff, some should not wait and need to be reported right away as they may be very serious or life threatening. Ask your nurse what side effects should be reported right away and should not wait.
What is a "type and screen" or a "type and cross"? Supportive Care
These are tests that are performed prior to getting blood transfusions. Your nurse can provide information on how they are performed and typically how long it takes to get results.
Will I need pre-medications before blood or platelet transfusions? Supportive Care
Not all patients need to receive medications prior to receiving blood products, but in some cases they may be needed. Ask your nurse if you will need any pre-medications prior to getting blood products.
How should I take care of my central I.V. line while I am at home in-between treatments? Treatment
Each different type of intravenous (I.V.) access requires a different level of care. For example, a PICC line (Pronounced "pick") will need to be flushed more often than a port. Your nurse can give you instruction on how and how often to care for your line. Proper line care will hopefully prevent infections and keep the line working for the duration it is needed. If lines are not cared for properly, they may need to be removed and/or replaced.
How can I thank my caregiver(s)? Caregivers
A heartfelt thank you note or a small gift can be thoughtful ways to show your appreciation for the help you received during treatment and recovery. Although not your primary caregiver, your nurse will have likely played an important role in your care. Nurses are wonderful people and often do not receive the appreciation or recognition they deserve. If your nurse was exceptional and made a difference in your life, consider rewarding your nurse with a small gift if you find it within your means to do so, or write a thank you letter and address it to the place where he or she works.
What can I do to prevent fatigue or lessen fatigue if I already have it? Side Effects
Regular physical activity and a healthy diet are some of the best things you can do to get your strength back and lessen fatigue. Ask your medical team for specific exercises to do at home. Starting out slow and making small improvements is sometimes the best way to not feel overwhelmed or get frustrated when getting in to an exercise routine. If you want additional help, ask your nurse to arrange for you to see a physical therapist (PT). Many physical therapists have doctorate degrees and are experts in customizing a program that will help you regain strength and mobility.
What survivorship networks and resources are available to me? Survivorship
Even when treatment is finished, survivors of cancer may still find survivorship resources very helpful and valuable as they navigate life after cancer and begin to resume the things in their life that have been interrupted by having a cancer diagnosis and receiving treatment. Your nurse may be able to recommend some of these resources to you. If you receive treatment from a university hospital or large healthcare system, there may be programs offered within these centers that are available to you.
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Questions to ask your PharmacistDoctorNurse

Should my pharmacist know my caregiver's contact information? Caregivers
Yes, if you establish with your pharmacy that your caregiver is an acceptable contact person they can keep that information on file and use it when they cannot reach you, such as when you have new medications to pick up, or if there is a problem filling your medication.
Should my caregiver go with me to my doctors visits, infusion treatments, and pharmacy to pick up prescriptions? Caregivers
It is often helpful for someone to go with you to help remember important things related to your treatment.  Because it is difficult to remember everything that healthcare providers say, this helper could also take notes on important information that you can both refer to at a later time during treatment. Your caregiver may want to listen to counseling by the pharmacist and take notes while they are teaching you about your medications.
Is my caregiver allowed to pick up my prescriptions? Caregivers
In most cases, a caregiver should be allowed to pick up your prescriptions from the pharmacy for you. Sometimes, a driver's license, government-issued I.D., or other additional information may be needed before a caregiver can pick up certain medications. Ask your pharmacist if any steps need to be taken before your caregiver goes to the pharmacy.
What foods or drinks, if any, should I be avoiding as I start treatment for cancer? Healthy Diet
There may be certain foods and/or drinks that interact with your treatment or may increase your risk of certain side effects. Your pharmacist can check for possible drug-food interactions to help you avoid certain foods or drinks that might cause problems when taken with your current medication regimen and cancer treatment.
Will I need to stop any of my current medications before starting treatment? Home Medications
By interacting with your planned cancer treatment, some prescription medications may cause an increased risk of side effects, or make the treatment less effective. Because of this, it is very important that your pharmacist review your current prescription medications and work with your doctor to determine if any medication needs to be stopped, changed to an alternative medication, or if they require a change in dose.
Am I able to safely continue over-the-counter and herbal supplements while receiving this treatment? Home Medications
Some over-the-counter and herbal supplements may increase the risk of side effects of therapy, or cause the treatment to not work as well. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist everything that you are taking, including prescription and non-prescription medications. This includes eye drops, inhalers, topical medications such as creams or patches, implants or injections, which are sometimes forgotten but are all medications too! Consider visiting this website from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to learn more about herbal products. When you visit this website, scroll to the bottom of the page to find the herbal medication you are interested in learning more about.
How do I deal with being overwhelmed after receiving so many prescription medications? Mindset
Try your best to learn how to pronounce each medication, know how they work to help you, and what dosage you are supposed to be taking. If you feel overwhelmed by this, you are not alone! Ask your pharmacist to help you with each of these. After telling them all of the medications you take, ask them to help you figure out the best time of day to take each one. If you do not already have them, buy two pillboxes to help you keep track of all of the medication you take on a weekly basis. By using two pillboxes you will know when you need to refill a medication well before you run out.
How will I know if my cancer treatment is working? Monitoring
Your doctor will monitor your progress through ordering certain tests designed to tell if the treatment is working. These may include blood tests, or scans, but also a physical assessment of your body's ability to function properly. Ask your pharmacist how they might determine if your medications are working and what the plan will be if you happen to need different treatment in the future. Your clinical oncology pharmacist may be able to help you understand what treatments might be suitable for you to consider in the future.
Will physical activity affect the prescription drugs I am taking? Physical Activity
Most people do not need to limit the amount or types of exercise they do based upon the medications they take. However, there are some types of medications that can impact physical activity. Because certain medications may increase your risk of falling during exercise (examples include certain blood pressure medications, or anxiety or pain medications), it is a good idea to double check with your doctor and pharmacist to learn if you are taking any of these types of medications. Additionally, certain conditions such as having low platelets, or taking blood thinners may increase the risk of bleeding during exercise if the exercise is not done properly. Low platelets can occur as a side effects from certain cancer treatments or from the cancer itself. Ask your pharmacist if there are any medications you are taking that might be unsafe with the exercises you are planning on doing.
Who will help me organize my cancer-related medications? Schedule
A pharmacist can help you organize your medications so that you know what to take and when. Most retail pharmacies sell plastic drug organizers (pillboxes) that help with this process. Be sure to ask the pharmacist or nurse before leaving the clinic if there are any new medications you are supposed to pick up at the pharmacy.
Who do I talk to about how long my infusion will take at the infusion center? Schedule
You may look at the schedule section on each one of our ChemoExperts webpages to get an idea, but know that each center may have their own infusion protocols, thus times may vary. If you attend any "Chemo Classes" before your infusion appointment there may be a nurse or pharmacist there to answer this question. Infusion-related reactions may require that you stay at the infusion center longer than originally planned. Because these are not always predictable, it is a good idea to leave plenty of time after the infusion to get to where you need to go.
What can I be doing to reduce the number of side effects I get? Side Effects
If you have a good understanding of what side effects to expect, you can begin to take measures to prevent them. Watch our side effect videos to learn more. For side effects that we do not yet have videos for, ask your pharmacist for ideas on how best to prevent them or if they occur, manage them appropriately. Doing so may keep you out of the hospital or even save your life!
What are the most important side effects I may experience from this cancer treatment? Supportive Care
Ask your clinical pharmacist if they have personal experience with other patients who have received the same treatment. Knowing you personally, they may be able to help you understand which side effects might be more likely to occur compared to others. Go to our Side Effects section and ask them to explain to you what it might mean to have any of the side effects we have listed. If you are deciding between cancer treatments, you may also want to compare the side effects of multiple cancer treatments by printing the Side Effects section alone and setting each of them side by side. Just remember to go through each one carefully because a short list does not always mean it is an easier treatment!
What is a specialty pharmacy and do I have to use one to fill my medication? Treatment
A specialty pharmacy is one that manages the handling and services for drugs used by patients with rare or chronic diseases and disorders. Typically, this pharmacy possesses special accreditation (a type of certification) allowing it to dispense rare and expensive medications. These may include oral cancer medications and injections that can be self-administered at home. The number of specialty pharmacies and the medications they dispense have greatly expanded in the last several years. In many cases you will need to get your medications from a specialty pharmacy because local pharmacies are not contracted with the insurance company to sell it. If you have a clinic pharmacist, they can help you decide where the best place to fill your medications will be.
What if the cancer treatment prescribed by my doctor is denied by my insurance company? Treatment
If your insurance denies your medication, or prior authorization, your doctor may write an appeal letter, sometimes referred to as a "Letter of Medical Necessity" on your behalf. This describes the importance of the medication they have prescribed and why other treatments are either less likely to work or more likely to cause significant side effects that you may not tolerate. If the letter does not work and the cancer treatment is still denied by insurance, some drug manufacturers are able to offer free medication to individuals who qualify for their free drug programs. You may access these programs by calling the manufacturer, going to their website, or asking your clinical oncology pharmacist for help with this process. Not all manufacturers have free drug programs, so ask your pharmacist if they can help you determine if one is available.
What if after the 1st of the year, or 1st of July my insurance plan resets and I cannot afford my out-of-pocket deductible? Cost
Ask to speak with a financial counselor, a pharmacist, or pharmacy technician that specializes in high-cost treatments. Most specialty pharmacies have these resources and should be able to help point you to potential resources, such as grant funding.
What if I become pregnant or if I father a child while receiving cancer treatment? Will my baby be affected? Fertility
The answer to this question may depend upon the type of treatment and the answer may also not be known. Ask your pharmacist to look for information (such as journal publications) about the outcomes of pregnancies when women became pregnant when receiving treatment themselves or when women became pregnant from a man who was receiving cancer treatment. Be sure to tell your doctor if you become pregnant during treatment since they may change how you are treated after having a discussion with you to learn what your goals are. Many times, but not always, cancer can continue to be treated throughout a pregnancy and a clinical pharmacist may be able to help.
Will my response to treatment be monitored by following certain genetic mutations? Genetics
If your treatment targets a specific genetic mutation, your response to your treatment may be monitored by following the levels of proteins that are made by the mutation or by monitoring to see if the number of cells with the mutation can reach undetectable levels. Ask your clinical pharmacist if any specific labs designed to detect mutations will be followed when monitoring your response to your treatment.
What if my non-cancer doctors prescribe medications while I am receiving cancer treatment? Home Medications
Before you start taking new medications, it is usually a good idea to tell your hematologist or oncologist about newly prescribed medications from other physicians, physician assistants, or nurse practitioners to avoid any dangerous drug-drug interactions. Ask your pharmacist if they are able to screen newly prescribed medications for drug-drug interactions.
Will I be able to stop any of my home medications during treatment? Home Medications
Depending on the type of medication, you may be able to stop some of them during anti-cancer treatment. It is good to continually ask your pharmacist and doctor which medications are necessary in order to keep your regimen to a manageable size.
How will I know if my cancer medications are working? Monitoring
Your pharmacist may help you manage side effects allowing you to avoid cancer treatment dose delays or dose reductions. This will hopefully help you get rid of or control the cancer. Your doctor may determine if the medications are working by performing a physical exam during each clinic visit, asking you to get scans of certain body parts (examples may include X-ray, M.R.I. scan, or C.T. scan), or ordering blood tests to help understand if the cancer medications are working. Ask your doctor or clinical pharmacist to explain the results of these tests to you if you are interested.
Are any medications I am taking preventing me from increasing my physical activity? Physical Activity
If you are taking many medications and you do not know a lot about them, it is possible that they may be causing side effects that are preventing you from doing the things you want to do. For example, people continue medications for constipation which may then cause diarrhea if they forget to stop taking them when the constipation resolves. Certain medications may contribute to profound fatigue that may be limiting the amount of activity you are able to do during the day. Some medications may be interfering with your sleep, such as prednisone or dexamethasone, if not taken early on in the daytime. If you would like to be doing more with your day, ask your pharmacist if you're taking medications that might be affecting your physical ability to exercise or mental ability to stay awake.
What can I do if I'm having trouble figuring out the best times to take my medications? Schedule
Talk to your pharmacist to try to minimize the number of times per day you need to take medication. Your pharmacist will make sure that the pills you take together at certain times of day are safe and will not interact with each other.
If I experience certain side effects during treatment, how long will it take for the side effect to go away? Side Effects
Depending on the specific side effect and how long the medication stays in the body, side effects may resolve quickly or take an extended amount of time to resolve. Your pharmacist can often give you a better idea of when to expect certain side effect to go away or decrease in severity.
If I am given multiple medications designed to take on an "as needed" basis for the same problem, how do I know which order to take each one? Side Effects
It is common for patients to receive multiple medications used to prevent or to treat symptoms such as nausea or vomiting, constipation, pain, or others. If you have received multiple new medications, it may be difficult to know which one to use and when. Based upon the medications you have available to you, ask your pharmacist to help you understand which medication is best to try first, how long to wait for it to work before trying something else, and when it may be best to call the doctor for help. It may take a little time and effort to learn about these medications, but it is well worth it. You may feel much better when you take them at times that they benefit you most and cause fewest side effects.
What can I do to take good care of myself and manage side effects during cancer treatment? Supportive Care
Start by watching all of our side effect videos. They are short and designed to give you background knowledge on the topic as well as ideas on how to prevent and treat each side effect. After watching our videos, ask your pharmacist about specific side effect management strategies for the other side effects listed.
I always seem to be running low on my medications. What can I do so that I do not have only one pill left at the time of the refill? Treatment
If you have prescription insurance, you are often permitted to refill your medication (if refills are allowed and prescribed) by the 80% rule. For example, if your prescription refill is for a 30-day supply, you may be able to refill it as early as Day 24. If you think you will be taking a certain medication for a long time, work with your pharmacist to determine the earliest date you can refill it to avoid running low on your supply. Additionally, if you plan to go on vacation, tell your pharmacist the exact dates (needed by insurance company) that you will be gone and ask them to get a "vacation override" allowing you to fill more than the typical "one month supply" of medicine so that you do not have to worry about trying to refill the medicine while you are away.
Should I get a pillbox to help me keep track of my medications? Treatment
A pillbox can help you keep track of your medications, even if you are only taking one medication daily. Because many of us lead busy lifestyles, it is easy to take a medication and then moments later think to yourself, "did I just take that?". Taking extra medication can be dangerous and leave you with not enough pills at the end of the month. We recommend buying two pillboxes that have at least two compartments for each day of the week. By placing your medications in a pillbox and filling two entire weeks. it will allow you to see if you have taken the medication on any given day when it is due, and when you are getting close to needing a refill. Check with your pharmacist first to see if each medication can go in your pillbox since some need to stay in the original container until right before you take it.
If my prescription is expensive, am I able to ask for a smaller quantity of pills? Treatment
Both supportive care medications and anti-cancer pills can sometimes be very expensive, and either cost you or your insurance company a lot of money. Some medications are required to be dispensed by a pharmacist in their original container with the original seal on the bottle or blister pack (individually sealed medications supplied in a foil pack) and therefore the entire quantity shown on the bottle or blister pack must be dispensed. However, if the prescribed amount medication is more than one bottle or blister pack, you have the freedom to ask for less medication. Ask your pharmacist which medications can be supplied in smaller amounts if you are uncertain you will use the entire amount. Less waste may also be better for the environment.
Will the side effects of the treatment affect my ability to work? Work
Tell your pharmacist what you do for work and they can help you understand which side effects might interfere with your ability to work. They may also be able to help you understand how certain side effects can be prevented, or which ones can be greatly reduced by taking the certain over-the-counter or prescription medications that might not affect how the cancer treatment works.
Who should I talk to (pharmacist, doctor, or nurse) about whether it is safe for me to work while taking or receiving cancer treatment? Work
You should first talk things over with your doctor.  If your doctor has specific concerns about the medications you are taking, he or she can talk to a clinical pharmacist for help. Your pharmacist may be able to help you appropriately time the medications you take so that any side effects experienced are less likely to interfere with your work and your life.
Are there any side effects that I might experience even after treatment is completed? Side Effects
Most side effects occur while you are actively receiving treatment, but in some cases certain side effects can occur months to years after treatment is complete. Based upon the treatment you received, ask your pharmacist if there are any side effects that you should watch out for in the future.

ChemoExperts Tips

  • Continuous exposure to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), rather than frequent stopping and restarting, has been shown to have better anti-leukemia effect. If 6-MP is causing side effects to the point where it is difficult to take, talk with your doctor to see if reducing the dose may be safe, yet still effective
  • It is usually recommend to swallow mercaptopurine tablets whole. On occasion, your doctor may have you split them in half. However, the dose of mercaptopurine per week can often be achieved by alternating the number of tablets you take each day. Your doctor or pharmacist should tell you the exact number of tablets to take on each day of the week.
  • Unless your doctor specifically tells you it is okay, you should NOT take allopurinol while taking 6-MP due to a drug interaction between these two medicines. If taken together, the allopurinol could lead to an unsafe build up of 6-MP in your body or cause the 6-MP to be less effective
  • An antiviral medication such as acyclovir or valacyclovir (Valtrex®) is usually prescribed to prevent viral infections and taken throughout therapy, including the maintenance phase
  • A medicine known as sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (more commonly called Bactrim®), is prescribed to prevent a specific type of pneumonia known as pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP pneumonia). Because Bactrim can interact with certain medications such as methotrexate, even when methotrexate is given intrathecally, your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist will tell to hold certain doses to prevent potentially severe side effects from methotrexate
  • Premedications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl®) are typically given prior to pegaspargase (Oncaspar®) to help prevent infusion reactions. With pre-medications, severe reactions develop in roughly 6% of patients receiving pegaspargase (Oncaspar®). If severe allergic reactions develop, an alternate form of pegaspargase (known as Erwinia, or Erwinaze®) may be given instead
  • If pegaspargase is given by intramuscular (I.M.) injection, multiple injections may have to be given as only a certain volume of pegaspargase can be injected at once
  • Omeprazole (Prilosec®) or a similar medication may be given to prevent ulcers from prednisone, however it is best not to take omeprazole on the days that methotrexate is given as it could make the methotrexate more toxic
  • Patients may differ in the amount and activity of an enzyme they have that metabolizes 6-mercaptopurine, called TPMT. In some cases, genetic testing for TPMT may recommended before or during treatment with 6-mercaptopurine to test for low levels of this enzyme that could lead to increased side effects
  • Clinical outcomes may be improved by seeking treatment from a University Hospital or National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored cancer center where there may be more experts with experience in treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • A pharmacist should ALWAYS review your medication list to ensure that drug interactions are prevented or managed appropriately
  • Clinical trials may exist for ALL. Ask your doctor if any studies are currently enrolling in your area. If not, go to clinicaltrials.gov to search for other centers offering study medications

Patient Assistance & Co-payment Coverage

Patients under the age of 65 years, or those with private insurance plans:
If you have insurance and are looking for patient assistance or copay assistance for C10403 Consolidation, we have provided links that may help.

Visit our Patient Assistance page and click the links to various patient assistance programs for help paying for C10403 Consolidation. Depending upon your income, they may be able to help cover the cost of:

  • Vincristine
  • Cyclo­phospha­mide IV
  • Cytarabine
  • Pegaspar­gase
  • 6-Mercapto­purine

For Branded medications (may be available for generic medications too), check with the manufacturer to determine if a co-pay card is offered and if it could reduce your monthly copay.

  • If you are uninsured, check with the manufacturer to determine if you are eligible to receive medication at no cost.

Medicare and Medicaid patients (Patients 65 years or older):
The clinic providing treatment will likely pre-authorize medications and immune therapies such as C10403 Consolidation and are the best source to help you understand drug cost.

  • Ask to speak with a patient assistance technician or financial counselor at the clinic or hospital administering this therapy.

Emotional Wellness

What is Emotional Wellness?
Emotional wellness is having a positive outlook balanced with a realistic understanding of current life events. This requires both an awareness and acceptance of your emotions. It is with this knowledge that you can develop a plan to take the necessary actions to positively impact your life.

Emotional wellness uses an ongoing process to continually reflect on the stressors of life in a constructive manner to move forward and create happiness.

Because emotional wellness is deeply connected with physical, social, and spiritual wellness, pursuing it often becomes particularly difficult in times of major illness. Despite this difficulty, working toward emotional wellness has been connected to improved treatment outcomes and a higher likelihood of achieving goals of therapy.

Learn more about pursuing emotional wellness while receiving treatment with C10403 Consolidation

Individual Drug Label Information

Vincristine (Oncovin®)

  • ​Vincristine MUST only be given by intravenous infusion. May NOT be administered any other way
  • Dosage may be reduced in patients with poor liver function
  • May interact with certain antifungal medications
  • Vincristine will cause death if administered into spinal fluid
General Vincristine (Oncovin) Side Effects
  • Nerve pain in hands or feet may increase after each dose. It is usually reversible if treatment is stopped or dose is adjusted
  • Hair loss is NOT common if vincristine is given by itself
  • May cause constipation; preventative medicines may help decrease or avoid constipation
  • Leakage into skin or surrounding muscle may cause severe irritation (extravasation)
  • Click on the vincristine (Oncovin) package insert below for reported side effects and potential drug interactions

Side Effect Videos
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Cyclo­phospha­mide IV (Cytoxan®)

  • Cyclophosphamide is administered as an intravenous (I.V.) infusion
  • May decrease the ability to become pregnant. Fertility preservation is recommended in couples wishing to become pregnant.
  • A smaller dosage may be required for patients receiving hemodialysis
  • Has been linked to the development of other cancers in a small number of people
General Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) Side Effects
  • Low white blood cell count which can increase the risk of infection
  • Nausea or vomiting, which can be acute (first 24 hours) or delayed (Days 2 – 5)
  • Hair loss, which is usually reversible
  • Click on the cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) package insert below for reported side effects and potential drug Interactions

Side Effect Videos
Nausea and VomitingNausea and VomitingHair LossHair LossNeutropenic FeverNeutropenic Fever

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Cytarabine (Ara-C)

  • Cytarabine is most commonly given as an intravenous infusion but may be given subcutaneously
  • FDA Black-Box Warnings for low white blood cells, low platelets, low red blood cells, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, liver damage, and abdominal pain
  • Dosage adjustments may be required renal or liver function
  • May cause a series of symptoms known as Cytarabine (Ara-C) Syndrome within 6 to 12 hours after administration. Symptoms may include fever, rash, chest pain, muscle aches, bone pain, tiredness, and inflammation and redness of the eye
General Cytarabine (Ara-C) Side Effects
  • Low red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Click on the cytarabine (Ara-C) package insert below for reported side effects and possible drug interactions

Side Effect Videos
Nausea and VomitingNausea and VomitingDiarrheaDiarrheaFatigue Fatigue BleedingBleedingPainPainAnemiaAnemiaNeutropenic FeverNeutropenic Fever

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Pegaspar­gase (Oncaspar®)

  • Is an intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection
  • Dosage adjustments may be required for liver function or side effects
General side effects from pegaspargase (Oncaspar®)
  • May cause infusion reactions. Premedications may be given prior to pegasparaginase to help prevent infusion reactions
  • Can cause problems with the body’s clotting system causing it to clot too much or not enough and cause bleeding. Contact your doctor if you notice any unusual bruising or bleeding, unexplained pain in your legs or arms, chest pain, or severe shortness of breath
  • Severe liver injury can occur. Some signs of serious liver injury can be yellowing of skin or eyes, abdominal pain or dark colored urine
  • May cause inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Contact your doctor if you experience any unexplained severe abdominal pain
  • May cause an increase in blood sugar. If you have diabetes, you may need to adjust the doses of your insulin or hypoglycemic medications
  • Click on the pegasparaginase (Oncaspar®) package insert below for reported side effects and possible drug interactions

Side Effect Videos
BleedingBleedingPainPainBlood ClotsBlood Clots

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6-Mercapto­purine (6-MP)

  • Is an oral tablet available in 50 mg
  • It is usually recommend to swallow mercaptopurine tablets whole. On occasion, your doctor may prescribe a half-tab to make a total daily dose. Ask a pharmacist before you split any tablets in half as this may not be necessary and could unnecessarily expose others to the medicine
  • Take without food, preferably at least 1 hour after evening meal. Food decreases absorption so it is best to take on an empty stomach to avoid possible decrease in effectiveness. DO NOT take with milk or citrus products
  • If you miss a dose, take the next dose as scheduled. DO NOT take two doses at once to make up for the missed dose
  • Store at room temperature and keep protected from light
  • Dosage adjustments may be required for decreased kidney or liver function
  • May interact with allopurinol. If allopurinol is used, the dose of mercaptopurine should be decreased and close monitoring should occur
  • May decrease the effects of warfarin. INR levels may need to be monitored more frequently and warfarin doses may need to be adjusted
  • May interact with olsalazine, mesalazine, or sulfasalazine causing an increased risk of side effects
  • Some patients may lack or have decreased activity in the enzyme that metabolizes mercaptopurine, known as TPMT. Genetic testing may be needed if unexpected severe side effects are experienced
  • Can cause fetal harm when given to pregnant women with the highest risk during the first trimester of pregnancy
General side effects from mercaptopurine (6-MP)
  • Commonly causes low white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
  • May cause liver toxicity which is often reversible when therapy with mercaptopurine is stopped
  • Can cause nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite
  • May cause diarrhea
  • Skin rash or increased skin pigmentation can occur
  • Click on the mercaptopurine (6-MP) package insert below for reported side effects and possible drug interactions

Side Effect Videos
Nausea and VomitingNausea and VomitingDiarrheaDiarrheaFatigue Fatigue BleedingBleedingPainPainAnemiaAnemiaNeutropenic FeverNeutropenic Fever

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References

1) Curran E, Stock W. How I treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in older adolescents and young adults. Blood 2015;125:3702-3710.

2) Stock W, Luger SM, Advani AS, et al. A pediatric regimen for older adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of CALGB 10403. Blood. 2019;133:1548-1559.

Created: February 9, 2017 Updated: January 25, 2021

What is Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL)?

Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL), also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, is a disease of the lymphoid cells found in the bone marrow. Lymphoid cells are responsible for developing into cells of the immune system called B-cells, T-cells, or Natural Killer cells. In ALL, immature lymphoid cells know as "blasts" replicate at a very fast rate. Sometimes blasts crowd out the normal cells in the bone marrow so that red blood cells or platelets are unable to develop.

Common symptoms of ALL include fatigue, infection, and bruising or bleeding. ALL is the most common cancer diagnosed in children, but is rare in adults. Most cases of ALL are considered "de novo" meaning that the cause is unknown; however, some cases can be linked to certain genetic syndromes. There is no staging system for ALL. Chromosomes are often analyzed to determine which mutations in the chromosomes exist. The effectiveness of the treatment may depend upon the specific chromosome mutations that are present.

NOTE: Treatment Options listed below are not all-inclusive. Other treatments may be available. ChemoExperts provides drug information and does not recommend any one treatment over another. Only your Doctor can choose your therapy.

What are "adolescents and young adults (AYA)?

The age range for this population is generally considered to be those between 18 - 39 years old, although this age range may vary slightly.

What does "Cure" mean?

The word “cure” means there are no cancer cells left in the body and cancer will never come back. Depending on the cancer type and stage, this may be the true goal of therapy. However, it is very difficult to prove all cancer cells are gone. Even though images, like X-rays and MRI’s, and blood tests may not show any signs of cancer, there can be a small amount of cancer cells still left in the body. Because of this, doctors use the word “remission” is used more often. This means there are no signs or symptoms of cancer. Patients in remission are followed closely for any signs of cancer returning. Sometimes, more chemotherapy may be given while in remission to prevent the cancer from coming back.

Doctors usually do not consider a patient “cured” until the chance of cancer returning is extremely low. If cancer does return, it usually happens within 5 years of having a remission. Because of this, doctors do not consider a patient cured unless the cancer has not come back within 5 years of remission. The five-year cutoff does not apply to all cancers.

What is an "intrathecal (I.T.) injection?

Intrathecal (I.T.) injection is a procedure where a needle is inserted into the spinal canal of the lower back to access the space that contains the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Typically, once the needle is inserted, a small amount of CSF is taken out and chemotherapy is then injected into the CSF. This is most often performed to treat cancer that is present in the CSF or to prevent cancer from invading the CSF. It is important that patients lie flat for 30 min - 1 hour after receiving an I.T. injection.

Common C10403 consolidation chemo starting doses

  • Cyclophosphamide 1000 mg/m2 intravenous (I.V.) infusion over 30 to 60 minutes on Days 1 and 29 (total of two doses total this course)
  • Cytarabine 75 mg/m2 I.V. infusion over 1 to 3 hours or subcutaneous (SubQ) injection on Days 1, 2, 3, 4, then 8 , 9, 10, 11, then 29, 30, 31, 32, then 36, 37, 38, 39 (total of sixteen doses of cytarabine this course)
  • Vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 (maximum 2 mg) I.V. push or I.V. infusion over 10 to 15 minutes on Days 15, 22, 43, and 50 (total of four doses total this course)
  • Pegaspargase 2500 units/m2 (maximum 3750 units) I.V. infusion over 1 to 2 hours or intramuscular (I.M.) injection on Days 15 and 43
  • 6-Mercaptopurine 60 mg/m2/day oral tablets by mouth once daily (at least one hour after evening meal) on Days 1 through 14 and Days 29 through 42 (total of twenty-eight doses this course). Different amounts of tablets may need to be taken on certain days of the week so that 420 mg/m2/week is administered. Double check the prescribed daily dose each day before taking mercaptopurine
  • Methotrexate 15 mg intrathecal (I.T.) injection on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22 (total of four doses total this course)

What is a CBC?

A Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a frequently ordered blood test that tells clinicians the status of your: 1) White blood cell count, 2) Hemoglobin, and 3) Platelet count at the time the test was taken.

Common uses:
1) White blood cell count (WBC): is used to determine infection risk, or response to chemotherapy. Certain chemotherapy agents may harm our good infection-fighting cells. Sometimes chemotherapy may need to be delayed to allow these cells to recover.

2) Hemoglobin: is used to determine if someone is anemic. Anytime the hemoglobin is below 12 g/dL, the person is said to be anemic. Red blood cell transfusions, and sometimes iron can be given to restore the hemoglobin level, but anemia treatment should always aim at treating the underlying cause or condition.

3) Platelet count: is used to determine if the risk of bleeding is increased or if a platelet transfusion is required to prevent bleeding. Certain medications that increase bleeding risk, such as: aspirin, certain chemotherapy agents, and blood thinners, may need to be stopped temporarily until the platelet count is within a safe range.

What is a CMP?

A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) is a frequently ordered blood test that tells clinicians the status of your: 1) Electrolytes & Acid/Base status2) Kidney function, 3) Liver function, 4) Blood sugar, and 5) Calcium at the time the test was taken. It is commonly used to monitor liver and kidney function when beginning new medications such as chemotherapy. A total of 14 tests are run simultaneously and are shown below.

Electrolytes & Acid/Base status:
1) Sodium, 2) Potassium, 3) Carbon dioxide, 4) Chloride

Kidney Function:
5) BUN (blood urea nitrogen), 6) Serum creatinine (Scr)

Liver Function:
7) AST, 8) ALT, 9) Total bilirubin, 10) Alk Phos, 11) Albumin, 12) Total protein

Blood sugar:
13) Serum glucose

Calcium:
14) Serum calcium

What is fibrinogen?

Fibrinogen is a clotting factor that gets converted to fibrin and plays a role in the final steps of clot formation. Fibrinogen may be supplemented during treatment in the form of cryoprecipitate, a human-derived product, that is transfused by I.V. infusion to increase fibrinogen levels and decrease the risk of bleeding.

What is Amylase?

Amylase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas that helps the body break down and digest carbohydrates. When the pancreas is injured, amylase is leaked out into the blood. Amylase, along with lipase, can be monitored to check for possible injury to the pancreas, indicated by elevated levels of the enzymes in the blood.

What is Lipase?

Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas that helps the body break down fats. When the pancreas is injured, lipase is leaked out into the blood. Lipase, along with amylase, can be monitored to check for possible injury to the pancreas, indicated by elevated levels of the enzymes in the blood.

What is "TPMT"?

Thiopurine methyltranferase (TPMT) is an enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing certain medications such as mercaptopurine, thioguanine, and azathioprine. Although rare, some patient may have genetic alterations that cause a decrease in activity of the TPMT enzyme. In extremely rare cases, patients may not have any activity of this enzyme.

Testing for genetic alterations in TPMT is often recommended for patients that experience severe and unexpected side effects from therapy, with the most common effect being very low blood counts. If alterations in TPMT are detected, therapy with mercaptopurine, thioguanine, or azathioprine may need to be adjusted or even stopped.