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Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)

A disease of the white blood cells found in the bone marrow that results when 2 chromosomes trade small sections of their DNA forming what is known as the “Philadelphia Chromosome.” When this happens within a white blood cell, it may grow and divide without being able to stop.

CML is a relatively rare condition and represents about 10% of diagnosed leukemias. CML is not thought to be an inherited disorder and most of the time, the cause is unknown. The average age at diagnosis is about 65 years old.

CML can present in one of three phases: Chronic Phase, Accelerated Phase, or Blast Crisis

Without treatment, CML may evolve over time causing aggressive disease. This may lead to symptoms such as weight loss, abdominal discomfort, decreased appetite, fever, bruising or bleeding, among others. The stage of CML can vary at diagnosis and throughout treatment. The effectiveness of the treatment may depend upon the phase of CML at diagnosis.

NOTE: Treatment Options listed below are not all-inclusive. Other treatments may be available. ChemoExperts provides drug information and does not recommend any one treatment over another. Only your Doctor can choose which therapy is appropriate for you.

Treatment Options

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Created: August 29, 2015 Updated: June 13, 2017

References

Larson RA. Is there a best TKI for chronic phase CML? Blood. 2015;126:2370-2375.

What is Chronic Phase?

When a patient with CML has a bone marrow biopsy that shows less than 10% blasts, they are said to be in chronic phase. Most patients with CML are diagnosed in the Chronic Phase, and may not have any symptoms.

What is Accelerated Phase?

When a patient with CML has a bone marrow biopsy that shows between than 11 – 20% blasts, they are said to be in accelerated phase. Patients with accelerated phase usually have symptoms such as poor appetite, weight loss, an enlarged spleen, or fever.

What is Blast Phase?

When a patient with CML has a bone marrow biopsy that shows more than 20% blasts, they are said to be in blast phase, or blast crisis. Patients with blast phase usually have symptoms similar to acute leukemia such as: easy bruising or bleeding, fever, poor appetite, weight loss, or an enlarged spleen.